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ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS FROM THE PHILIPPINES
IN U.S. COLLECTIONS: a preliminary listing,
including two printed Qur’ans

by Annabel Gallop, The British Library

Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

E232848A-0
Qur’an, incomplete. In Arabic.
Cream European paper; many loose folios (including some from a printed Qur’an); poor condition. Loose wraparound leather cover, with the hair of the animal (goat) still visible. Text in black ink, in a careful neat regular hand; 13 lines per page; text frames of ruled black-red-black lines. Catchwords at the bottom left of each verso are written vertically. Verse markers are black circles. No surah headings are visible on the photographed pages (although an empty line has been left for a heading at the start of S. Yusuf ), or any marginal ornaments or decoration.

E232848A-0
E232848A-0

            The first folio of the manuscript bundle contains the start of Surat al-Isra’ (Q.17), with 8 lines of text, set within an illuminated rectangular frame; verse markers are rather elaborate triple concentric red circles.  The inner frame contains a spiky foliate scroll in reserved white against a pink ground, and is outlined with two pairs of double-ruled black lines enclosing a pale yellow border, while the outer thinner frame contains a blue wave-like pattern on a white ground, with small pink fillers.  On the two vertical sides, the frames are extend upwards and downwards.  On all four sides around the text block are triangular arches containing a bud motif in reserved white agains a pale ochre ground. 
Gift of Dr. Lt. Edgar A. Mearns, 25 November 1904.

E232848B-0
Qur’an, lacking beginning, complete at end.
Cream European paper; bound in quires, binding threads visible.  Remnants of the brown leather cover still present at the front, but not at the back.  Text in black ink, in a steady hand with a slight slope to the left; 15 lines per page; text frames of 2, 3 or 4 ruled black lines, unusually these are hatched at the junctures.  Surah headings are in red ink and sometimes flank or are flanked by the final words of the preceding surah; the headings are not set in ruled frames.  The ends and beginnings of surahs are marked in the text with composite roundels made up of 3 or 4 intersecting circles, partially coloured in red.  Verse markers are black circles which are either coloured in with red or yellow, or left plain.  Juz’ are marked in margin with petalled concentric roundels in red and ochre, inscribed in the middle with the number of the juz’, with the first lines of the text highlighted in bold.

E232848B-0
E232848B-0

            The final two pairs of double pages are quite elaborate in their presentation and decoration.  The penultimate double-page spread contains S. al-Kautsar (Q.108) through to S. al-Ikhlas (Q.112).  Here the text frames are of 4 ruled black lines arranged as two pairs of two, and the surah headings are set within rectangular frames of two ruled black lines.  The basmalah at the start of each of the five surahs is treated ever more elaborately, initially by thickening the sin-mim ligature of bism in S. al-Nasr (Q.110), then by shadowing all the letter forms with a foliate fronds in S. al-Lahab (Q.111), and finally in S. al-Ikhlas by additionally outlining the letters in red.  The text of this surah is also written in bold and in very large letters, presumably in a belated attempt by the scribe to fill up the space on this page.  But even so, only the first two-thirds of the left-hand page is filled with text, and so the bottom third is occupied by a decorative filler, in the form of three triangular arches enclosing foliate scroll motifs, sandwiched between two multi-layered horizontal frames with geometrical patterns, coloured in red, black and reserved white.
            The final double-page spread contains S. al-Falaq on the right and S. al-Nas on the left, each set within elaborate— but different—frames, again with a palette of red, black and reserved white.  On the right-hand page, the text block is surrounded by a series of frames, with triangular arches on all four sides, and with multi-layered frames on the vertical sides extended upwards and downwards.  The outer edges of both the vertical and horizontal frames are decorated with a series of finials and semicircles.   On the final, left-hand page, the text block is surrounded by an elaborate frame edges with decorative finials, the whole of which is enclosed within a further series of frames.  The four triangular arches found on the right-hand page, are on this page balanced by four large demicircles, each flanked by two smaller semicircles.  The verso of this folio, which constitutes the back page of the manuscript, bears a few jotted notes and prayers.
Gift of Dr. Lt. Edgar A. Mearns, 25 November 1904.

E232848C-0
Qur’an, incomplete. In Arabic.
Beige fibrous paper; no covers.  Text in black ink, in an irregular, poorly-formed hand; 15 lines per page; no text frames.  Verse markers are black circles with a dot in the middle.  No surah headings seen.  Rub‘ marked in the margin in black ink; no marginal ornaments seen. 
Gift of Dr. Lt. Edgar A. Mearns, 25 November 1904.

E232848C-0
E232848C-0

E232849-0
Qur’an; a lithographed copy. In Arabic.
Printed in Bombay at the Muhammadiah press in 1299 (1881/82 AD); written by al-Haj Muhammad Samarra. Red cardboard covers.
            A very similar lithographed copy of the Qur’an, with the same red covers, which was found in Sumatra, is held in the Wereldmuseum Rotterdam, showing that the same types of printed Qur’ans circulated all over Southeast Asia at the time.
Gift of Dr. Lt. Edgar A. Mearns, 25 November 1904.

E232849-0
E232849-0

E232849A-0
Qur’an; a lithographed copy. In Arabic.
Printed in Bombay at the Muhammadiah press in 1299 (1881/82 AD); written by al-Haj Muhammad Samarra. Full dark brown leather Islamic binding with flap, with a string through the tip of the flap
            Although printed at the same press and in the same year as E232849-0, this is a different edition of the Qur’an, with different decorative details, and this copy includes a copyright statement in Urdu in the colophon.
Gift of Dr. Lt. Edgar A. Mearns, 25 November 1904

E232849A-0
E232849A-0

E247720-0
E247720-0

E247720-0
Writing board. In Arabic.
Wooden board, with tapered scalloped top, with 17 lines of Qur’anic text in black ink, commencing with the basmalah and ending with two 5-pointed stars.  Dimensions 23 1/2 x 7 1/4 inches.  From catalogue card: “Thin tablet of wood with ornament head.  Several lines of Koran written in ink across face.  Used for instruction.”  From Mindanao. 
Acquired from Dr Jesse R.Harris, 2 July 1907.

E253691-0
Qur’an, lacking beginning and end.  In Arabic.
Cream European paper; binding threads visible; cloth covers.  Text in black ink; fine, strong, vigorous hand with a pronounced slope to the left; 13 lines per page; text frames are a variety of symmetrical permutations of red and black lines, including black-red-red-black (beg);  black-red-red-red-black (mid); and black-red-black and black-red-black-red-black (end).  Verse markers are red or yellow roundels outlined in black ink.  The one surah heading seen (S. al-Anbiya, Q.21) is in red ink, with multiple-knotted ta marbuta, set within rectangular frames of double-ruled red ink lines.  The opening basmalah has a ruled sin-mim ligature in red ink, with alternating red and black ink for each word.  Juz’ indicated in the margin with star-shaped roundels in red and black inscribed al-juz’, with the first words in the text in red.  Other marginal ornaments are decorative roundels with petals or layers of chevrons in red, black, ochre and reserved white, with the appropriate place in the text marked with a composite 3-roundel, but as these are not all labelled it is difficult to work out what they indicate.  On this double page, at the outer corners of the text frames are small bird-like scalloped finials oriented diagonally outwards.

E253691-0
E253691-0

            According to the Annual Report, U.S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution (1909), ‘An illuminated Arabic manuscript of the Koran, captured in the Philippines by Capt. Charles F. Bates, U.S. Army, was transferred from the Dept. of War.  It shows the effect of hard usage by the Mohammedan natives of Mindanao’ (p.29); a later mention in the same publication says ‘Fragmentary – copy of the Koran, taken from a hostile Moro cotta near Masibay, Mindanao, P.I. (49847)’ (p.102) .  There are enough surviving illuminated marginal ornaments to suggest that this MS would originally have had decorated frames, at least around the opening surahs and perhaps also at the end.
Transferred from the Department of War on 10 March 1909.

E257715
Writing board. In Arabic.
Long dark wooden board, with tapered top.  20 lines of text in black ink.  Lines 1-3: the Arabic alphabet; lines 4-11: unidentified text; lines 12-20: Qur’anic text, commencing with basmalah, with floral markers between verses; doodles at end.  From catalogue card: “A school board on which the Panditas or Priests learn to read.  Only a few men read and these are almost all priests.”  From Mindanao. 
Acquired from U.S. Army chaplain Joseph Clemens, 10 December 1909.

E257715
E257715

E257715
E283011

E283011
Writing board. In Arabic.
Wooden board, with tapered scalloped top and two rows of carved chevrons across the top.  15 lines of Qur’anic text in black ink, with floral markers between verses.  Further notes at end.  Dimensions 27 1/2 x 9 3/8 inches.  From catalogue card: “School board with inscription”.  From Mindanao. 
Acquired from Dr Jesse R.Harris, 27 May 1914.

E367972 -0
Qur’an, incomplete. In Arabic.
Cream paper; stitched in quires, red binding threads visible in three places along spine; no covers.  Text in black ink, in a regular, careful if uncouth hand; 13 lines per page; no text frames.  Verse markers are black ink circles.  No surah headings visible. On one page is a marginal ornament of two concentric circles in black ink, probably unfinished. 
            This manuscript is said to be from Mt. Apo, Mindanao, and was acquired from E.R. Poe on 21 February 1934.


E367972 -0

ET 16837-0
Qur’an, incomplete. In Arabic.
Yellowish fibrous paper. Text in black ink, in a large careful hand tending towards muhaqqaq; 16 lines per page; text frames of triple-ruled black lines.  On some pages there are decorative concentric circles at the four corners of the text frames.  Verse markers are black circles, infilled with red pigment; not found on all pages.  ‘Ayn in black ink is visible in the margin on one page, but no other marginal inscriptions are noted on the pages photographed.  According to an acommpanying note by Paul Michael Taylor, this fragment was found inside E232849A-0 by him on ?? September 19?8.
            This Qur’an fragment is in a quite different hand from all the other Qur’ans in this group, and may perhaps be slightly earlier in date.  It is rather unusual to have an even number of lines per page.

ET 16837-0
ET 16837-0

Library of Congress, Washington D.C., Manuscript Division, Charles W. Hack Papers, I.D. No. MSS58750.
Container No. 1


A.  Qur’an (incomplete), S.29-51. In Arabic.
Yellowish/brown fibruous paper; does not appear to be of European manufacture.  Binding threads visible.  Text in black ink, in a crude hand; 15 lines per page; text frames of double-ruled black ink lines, on the first page with a red line between the two black lines.  Verse markers are red roundels outlined with black, with a black dot in the middle.  Surah headings in red ink, not set in frames.  Certain key points in the text (eg. end of a surah or start of a juz') are marked with a petalled flower coloured in red.  The start of a juz' is marked in the margin with the inscription al-juz surrounded by four red roundels. 
The 4 images supplied show the beginning of Surah 29, ; the beg. of Surah 36, Ya Sin; the start of the 27th juz' (section), Surah 51, al-Zariyah, v.31 - i.e. covering at least chapters 29-51 of the Qur'an.

Qur’an (incomplete), S.29-51. In Arabic.

B. Qur’an (incomplete), Q.42:1 -?. In Arabic.
Creamy paper, in good condition; no laid/chain lines visible on the images.  Binding threads visible; sewn at three points on the spine.  Text in black ink with some red diacritical marks, in a competent and stylish hand; 9 lines per page. No verse markers. Surah headings in red ink, with double knotted ta marbuta.   Distinctive stylized initial ba of bismillah.  The final page has triple-ruled black ink text frames and appears to be written in another, less accomplished, hand. 
The images supplied show the beginning of Surah 42, al-Shura through to the beginning of Surah 43; I have not identified the contents of the final page.

Qur’an (incomplete), Q.42:1 -?. In Arabic.

C. Darangen. In Maranao in Arabic script. 
Creamy paper, probably of European manufacture with laid and chain lines visible.  Text in black ink; 10 lines per page. 
The Darangen is the Maranao literary epic which was usually transmitted orally through recitation, and was only committed to writing in more recent times.

Darangen

United States Military Academy Library, West Point, New York; MS No.193
Composite volume containing part of the Qur’an with interlinear Malay translation, and texts in Malay and in another Philippine language.  Various papers, inks, and different no. of lines per page.  Leather binding.
Contents:
A.  Malay text on fiqh.
B.  Qur’an, with interlinear Malay translation.  Ends with S. al-Nas (i.e. complete at end).
C.  Prayers to be read over a dead body in preparation for burial; b) recipe to enhance sexual potency, using the burnt head of a yellow eel; c) charm (hikmat) to attract a woman.
D.  1 f. of paper in Maguindanao/Maranao, with a sketch of an archangel(?), surrounded by magical formulae, including the names of the archangels (malaikat) and letters including ha-mim.
E.  1 f. in Maguindanao/Maranao and Arabic.
Label reading: ‘Malay Koran, with various loose sheets.  Found in Taraca River Forts, Lake Lanao region, Mindanao, P.I. April 1904 – Loaned to US Mil. Acad. Library’.
In the handlist ‘A preliminary guide to twentieth century manuscripts in the U.S. Military Academy Library’ by Judith A. Sibley, 16 November 1989, this manuscript is described as ‘No.193.  Koran. 180 pages.  Copy of the Koran, written in Malay with arabic characters, with some sheets laid in’.

New York Public Library; Arab. MS. 11
Qur’an, incomplete (S. al-Baqarah, Q. 2.16 – S. al-Balad, Q. 90:5). 
276 ff.  32 x 21 cm.  Text in black ink; 15 lines per page; text frames (24 x 14 cm).  Verse markers are yellow roundels.  No surah headings.  Marginal ornaments.  19th c., Philippine islands.
Schmitz 1992: 287.

Newberry Library, Chicago; VAULT Ayer MS 1979
Catalogue description: ‘Two Moro prayer manuals principally in Arabic, possibly from the 19th century, containing quotes from the Koran and prayers to Muhammad for use by Moros, the Muslims of the Philippines.  2 items (52 p.).’
No images seen.

University of Michigan Library; MS 839
Book of devotions, [19th century?].
Text enclosed in thin triple border; borders decorated in Maranao style in black, red, and yellow. Work created in the Philippines.  1 v. ([52] p.) ; 21 cm..
Watermarks: initials A.R.T. with crown and shield; cursive monogram AG or GA.
"Presented to the university by Captain A. R. Alfred, in November, 1932." -- note on card in repository.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002631722

 

MINDANAO BOOKS AND JOURNALS

Making MindanaoAanonsen, Karl.  Sunggud is our Business: Tboli Social Organisation and Marriage Practices in Light of Historical and Social Dynamics on Mindanao. Oslo: Novus forlag, Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, 2003.

Abat, Fortunato U. The Day We Nearly Lost Mindanao. Quezon City: SBA Printers, 1999.

Abducal, Alonto W. Thirteen Tausog Folktales. Marawi City: University Research Center, Mindanao State University, 1988.

Abinales, Patricio N. Making Mindanao: Cotabato and Davao in the formation of the Philippine nation-state. Quezon City, Philippines:  Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2000.

__________. Mindanao, Nation, and Region: The Joys of Dislocation. Manila: Anvil Publishing, 2008.

__________. Orthodoxy and History in the Muslim-Mindanao Narrative. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2009.

Abreu, Lualhati Milan. Agaw Dilim, Agaw Liwanag. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2010.

Expanding Spaces for Change, Peace and Development Communities: A decade of Building Peace in Mindanao. Davao City: ACT for Peace Programme, 2010.

Aday: a language and literature publication of Mindanao State University. Marawi City, Philippines: Mamitua Saber Research Center, Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research & Extension, Mindanao State University, 1994.

Aguilar, Jose Nieto. Mindanao: Su Historia Y Geografía. Gloucestershire, UK: Echo Library, 2006.

Alan, Mercedes. Mindanao Ethnic Communities: Patterns of Growth and Change. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, 2001.

Alconaba, N. “The Nomadic Lumads in Mindanao: `This land is our land'.” Philippine Daily Inquirer, January 3, 1995.

Alejo, Albert E. Ehemplo: Spirituality of Shared Integrity in Philippine Church and Society. Quezon City: Institute of Spirituality in Asia, 2010.

__________. Ang Katotohanan ay Ilog Dabaw / Turning Rage into Courage: Mindanao under Martial Law. Davao City: MindaNews Publications, Mindanao News and Information Cooperative Center, 2002.

__________. Generating energies in Mount Apo: Cultural Politics in a Contested Environment. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2000.

Aliño, Potenciano C. Decisions on the Uplands. Makati City: Society of St. Paul, 1993.

Al-Macaraya, Batua, and Engracia M. Macaraya, eds. Lexicon of Classical Literary Maranao Words and Phrases. Marawi City: Mindanao State University, Research Center, 1993.

An Anthology of Ilianen Manobo Folktales. Cebu City, Philippines: University of San Carlos, 1981.

An Lim, Jaime L. and Christine Godinez-Ortega, eds. Mindanao Harvest: An Anthology of Contemporary Writing. Vol. 1. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1995.

__________. Mindanao Harvest, Vol. 2. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1996.

__________, et al. Landscapes of the Imagination: The Fifth Iligan National Writers’ Workshop and Literature Teachers’ Conference in Mindanao. Iligan City, Philippines: Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, 1998.

Andres, Tomas Quintin D. Understanding Davaoeño Values of Southern Mindanao: Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, & Davao Oriental. Quezon City: Giraffe Books, 2006.

__________. Understanding the Values of Western Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sulu, Basilan & Tawi-Tawi. Quezon City: Giraffe Books, 2006.

__________. Understanding the Values of Central Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, North Cotabato, & Sultan Kudarat. Quezon City: Giraffe Books, 2006.

Anecdotes: Western Mindanao. Zamboanga City: Dept. of Education, Culture and Sports, Region IX, Western Mindanao, 1989.

Angeles, F. Delor. Mindanao: The Story of an Island (a preliminary study). S.l.: San Pedro Press, 1964.

Annotated Bibliography of Mindanao Studies. Davao City, Philippines: Mindanao Studies Consortium Foundation, 2005.

Arcilla, Jose S. Jesuit Missionary Letters from Mindanao. Quezon City: Philippine Province Archives, 1990.

Arguillas, Carolyn O. Turning Rage into Courage: Mindanao under Martial Law. Davao City: MindaNews Publications, Mindanao News and Information Cooperative Center, 2002.

Arifin-Cabo, Pressia et al. Dar-ul salam: A Vision of Peace for Mindanao. Cotabato City and Makati City: Kadtuntaya Foundation (KFI) and Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst (DED), 2008.

Arnold, James R. The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902-1913. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2011.

Mga Piling Dulang Mindanao

Arpon, Winston G. Laughter in the South: Footnotes to the Southern Philippines Conflict. Manila: Winston G. Arpon, 1979.

Arriola, Geejay. “Reinvention in Theater.” Our Own Voice Literary Ezine, July 2002. Accessed February 4, 2011.

__________. “Waway Saway: Visitations from a Talaanding Artist.Our Own Voice Literary Ezine, March 2004. Accessed February 4, 2011.

__________, Agnes N. Miclat-Cacayan, Vivien Nobles, and Sr. Esperanza Clapano, MA. From the Womb of Mebuyan, ed. by Mary Lou Caharian. Davao City, Philippines: Hinabi Women’s Circle, 1998.

Askandar, Kamarulzaman and Ayesah Abubakar,eds. The Mindanao Conflict.  Penang, Malaysia: Southeast Asian Conflict Studies Network, 2005.

Azurin, Arnold Molina. Beyond the Cult of Dissidence in Southern Philippines and War Torn Zones in the Global Village. Quezon City: UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies and University of the Philippines Press, 1996.

Bacani, Benedicto R. Beyond Paper Autonomy: The Challenge in Southern Philippines. Makati City and Cotabato City: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung and Notre Dame University, College of Law, 2004.

Baclagon, Uldarico S. Christian-Moslem guerrillas of Mindanao. Manila: Lord Ave. Printing Press, 1988.

Bacong, Edgar. Habagat at Niyebe: Mga Tulang Nalikom mula sa Pakikihamok sa Loob at Labas ng aking Bayan. Davao City: Tuluyang Pinoy and the Mindanao News and Information Cooperative Center, 2004.

Bagani, Man of Dignity. Manila: Presidential Commission for the Rehabilitation and Development of Southern Philippines, 1980.

Bajo, Rolando O. The Ata-Manobo: At the Crossroads of Tradition and Modernization. Davao del Norte: CARD-Davao, 2004.

Bakuludan, Samier M., et al. Annotated Bibliography: Maguindanaon, Tausug, Yakan Studies. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, Center for Integrative and Development Studies, Mindanao Studies Program, 1996.

Bañez, Ma. Arve B. “Poverty, War and Peace: Lumad and Muslim Women’s Issues in Mindanao.The Forum 11 (2010). Accessed February 4, 2011.

Barretto-Lagunzad, Catherine and Perry S. Ong. Endangered Beauty: Mt. Malindang and Its Environs in Mindanao, Philippines. Laguna: Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, 2006.

Bascar, Clemencio Montecillo. Maguindanao: The Crescent that Spain Failed to Plunder. Zamboanga City: University Press, Western Mindanao State University, 2004.

__________. Riots of Convictions. Zamboanga City: University Press, Western Mindanao State University, 2002.

__________.  Velvet Dreams and Other Plays. Zamboanga City: University Press, Western Mindanao State University, 2002.

Basman, Taha M., et al. Autonomy for Muslim Mindanao: The RCC Untold Story. Manila: B-lal Publishers, 1989.

Bautista, Filomeno M. Glimpses of Mindanao: The Land of Promise. Manila: F.M. Bautista, 1939.

Bautista, Germelino M. Communities at the Margins: Reflections on Social, Economic, and Environmental Change in the Philippines. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2004.

Bauzon, Leslie E. People of the Upstream: A Reconstruction of Manobo Social Reality. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, 1999.

Bean, Robert Bennett. “Types among the Inland Tribes of Luzon and Mindanao.” In The Philippine Journal of Science. Manila: Bureau of Science, 1913.

The Wild Tribes of Davao DistrictBecker, George F. Brief Memorandum on the Geology of the Philippine Islands. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899.

Benedict, Laura Watson. A Study of Bagobo Ceremonial, Magic and Myth. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1916.

Bernad, Miguel Anselmo. Benigno P. Dagani, S.J., 1903-1988: A Humble and Zealous Missionary in Mindanao. Quezon City: Jesuit Communications Foundation, 2007.

__________. Mindanao: a portrait. Makati City, Philippines: Bookmark, 1999.

__________. The Great Island: Studies in the Exploration and Evangelization of Mindanao. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2004.

Beyer, H. Otley. A Collection of Twenty Spanish "Expedientes" (with accompanying Moro documents) Relating to Affairs in Sulu, Lanao, and Zamboanga, 1889-1898 from the Division of Archives. Manila: Philippine Library and Museum, 1920.

Blumentritt, Ferdinand. An Attempt at Writing a Philippine Ethnography: (with an Appendix) The Spanish Maritime Discoveries in Philippine Archipelago. Marawi City: University Research Center, Mindanao State University, 1980.

__________. “Enlargement of my Map of the Island of Mindanao.” In The Hero of the Filipinos, by Charles Edward Russell and E.B. Rodriguez. Manila: National Historical Institute, 1923.

Bourne, Edward Gaylord. “The Pacification of Mindanao.” In The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1904.

Brandeis, Hans. “Musik und Tanz der Bukidnon-s von Mindanao: eine kurze einfuhrung (Music and dance of the Bukidnon of Mindanao).” Accessed February 2, 2011.

Bruno, Juanito A. The Social World of the Tausug: a Study in Philippine Culture and Education. Manila: Centro Escolar University, 1973.

Buenafe, Maria Corazon, ed. Lanao Boy: A life, The Writings of Manuel E. Buenafe (1916-1963). Marawi City: Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research & Extension and Mamitua Saber Research Center, Mindanao State University, 2007.

Buenconsejo, Jose Semblante. Songs and Gifts at the Frontier: Person and Exchange in the Agusan Manobo Possession Ritual, Philippines. Singapore: Psychology Press, 2002.

Bugs & Bytes, 4th Quarter. Accessed February 4, 2011.

Burton, Erlinda M. The Concept of Justice among the Indigenous Communities of Northeastern Mindanao: A Comparative Study of Customary Laws and Resolution of Conflicts. Cagayan de Oro City: Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Xavier University, 1991.

__________, et al. Women for Peace: A Study on the Impact of the Armed Conflict among the Women in Mindanao. Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines: Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Xavier University, 1992.

Burton, J.W. “Pre-spanish Indic Influence in the Agusan Area of Mindanao.” Solidarity (1994): 144-153.

Cabotaje, Esther M. “The Food Culture of the People of Dologon, an Inland Barrio of Mindanao.” PhD diss., Centro Escolar University, 1974.

Understanding Mindanao ConflictCabucos, Erwin. Green blood and other stories. Sydney: Manila Prints, 2008.

Cadar, Usopay Hamdag. Context and Style in the Vocal Music of the Maranao in Mindanao, Philippines. Iligan City, Philippines: Coordination Center for Research and Development, 1980.

Cal, Ben. Gallantry in Mindanao: Preserving the Republic. Quezon City: Mabuhay Communication Services 2000.

Cameron, Charles Raymond. Sulu Writing, an Explanation of the Sulu-Arabic Script as Employed in Writing the Sulu Language of the Southern Philippines. Zamboanga: The Sulu Press, 1917.

Canoy, Reuben R. The Quest for Mindanao Independence. Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines: Mindanao Post Publishing Co., 1989.

Canuday, Jose Jawel. Bakwit: The Power of the Displaced. Quezon City: ADMU Press, 2009.

Casal, Gabriel. T'boli art in its Socio-cultural Context. Makati City: Ayala Museum, 1978.

Casanova, Arthur P. Mga Piling Dulang Mindanao. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2007.

__________. The Kambayoka Book: The First Thirty Years of the Sining Kambayoka of the Mindanao State University. Manila: UST Publishing House, 2004.

__________. Ulos: Apat na Dula ng Pakikidigma sa Mindanao. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2003.

Casino, Eric. The Jama Mapun: A Changing Samal Society in the Southern Philippines. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1976.

Castrillo, Pamela del Rosario. “Karl Gaspar and the Mindanao Theater: 1970-1990.” Philippine Studies 44: 39-51.

Castrillo, Pamela del Rosario.  1997. The Theater of Karl Gaspar:  The Biblical-Religious Plays.  Philippine Studies. Quezon City. Ateneo de Manila University Press, vol. 45, Third Quarter: 353-384.

__________, Don Pagusara and Macario D. Tiu (eds). Philippine Literature: A Mindanao Reader. Davao City: Research and Publication Office, Ateneo de Davao University, 2005.

Christie, Emerson Brewer. The Subanuns of Sindangan Bay. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1909.

Cole, Fay-Cooper. The Bukidnon of Mindanao. Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum, 1956.

__________. The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1913.

Cole, Mabel Cook. “Mythology of Mindanao.” In Philippine Folk Tales. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1916.

Compilation of Government Pronouncements and Relevant Documents on Peace and Development for Mindanao. Manila: Office of the Press Secretary, Philippine Information Agency, Bureau of Communications Services, 1988.

Compilation of AFRIM Publications: Peace and development in Mindanao. Davao City: AFRIM, 2010.

Compilation of AFRIM Publications: Banana Issues in Mindanao. Davao City: AFRIM, 2010.

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Mindanao Ethnohistory Beyond NationsEstrañero, Danilo E. The Road to Resolving the Conflict in the South. Pasay City: Rotary Club of Pasay Central, 2007.

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From Secession to Autonomy: Self-Government in Southern Philippines. Manila: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1980.

Fuentes, Vilma May A. and Edito T. de la Cruz. A Treasury of Mandaya and Mansaka Folk Literature. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1980.

Fulton, Robert A. Moroland, 1899-1906: America’s First Attempt to Transform an Islamic Society.  Bend, Oregon: Tumalo Creek Press, 2007.

Funtecha, Henry Florida. American military occupation of the Lake Lanao region, 1901-1913: An historical study. Marawi City: University Research Center, Mindanao State University, 1979.

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Gaspar, Carlos, Jehoven Honculada, Wilfredo Rodriguez, Victorino Carillo, Jackie Schramn and Fe Remotigue. Mamugnaong dula (Creative Dramatics) Training Manual. Davao City: Mindanao-Sulu Pastoral Conference Secretariat, 1979.

Gaspar, Karl. A People's Option: To Struggle for Creation. Quezon City: Claretian Publications, 1990.

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__________. Mystic-wanderers in the Land of Perpetual Departure. Quezon City: ISA Publications, 2005.

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__________. The Lumad’s Struggle in the Face of Globalization. Davao City: Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao, 2000.

__________. To Be Poor and Obscure: The Spiritual Sojourn of a Mindanawon. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2004.

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Gomez, Nikki Rivera. Coffee and Dreams on a Late Afternoon: Tales of Despair and Deliverance in Mindanao. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, 2005.

Gowing, Peter G. Mandate in Moroland: the American Government of Muslim Filipinos, 1899-1920. Quezon City: University of the Philippines, 1977.

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Haggerty, Edward. Guerrilla Padre in Mindanao. Manila: Bookmark, 1964.

Hamilton, Roy W., ed. From the Rainbow’s Varied hue: Textiles of the Southern Philippines. Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1998.

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Wisdom from a RainforestRasul, Jainal D. Still Chasing the Rainbow: Selected Writings of Jainal D. Rasul, Sr. on Filipino Muslims’ Politics, History, and the Law (Shari’ah). Quezon City: FedPil Pub., 1999.

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__________. Studies in Moro History, Law and Religion. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild, 1976.

Santos, Dr. Rolando Arquiza. Edited by Dr. Claribel Concepcion and Dr. Aireen Barrios-Arnuco. Chavacano de Zamboanga, Compendio y Diccionario (Chavacano-English and English-Chavacano). Zamboanga City: Ateneo de Zamboanga University Press, 2010.

Santos, Soliman M. Jr. The Moro Islamic Challenge: Constitutional Rethinking for the Mindanao Peace Process. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2001.

The Adventures of Piang__________ and Paz Verdades M. Santos, etal. Primed and Purposeful: Armed Groups and Human Security Efforts in the Philipines. South_South Network for Non-State Armed  Group Engagement and the Small Arms Survey, 2010.

Schlegel, Stuart A. Tiruray Justice: Traditional Tiruray Law and Morality. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

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__________. Wisdom from a Rainforest: The Spiritual Journey of an Anthropologist. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2003.

Schreurs, Peter. Angry days in Mindanao: The Philippine Revolution and the War against the U.S. in East and Northeast Mindanao, 1897-1908. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, National Historical Institute, 2000.

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Sherfan, Andrew D. The Yakans of Basilan Island: Another Unknown and Exotic Tribe of the Philippines. Cebu City: Fotomatic Inc., 1976.

SiningbayanSicat, Sonia S. Chavacano Folk Music-Literary Pieces: A Spanish Progeny. Zamboanga City: Western Mindanao State University, 2003.

Sikami'n lumad: bagong panitikan ng katubong Mindanaw. Davao City : Mindanawon Initiatives for Cultural Dialogue, 2005.

Silva, Rad D. Two Hills of the Same Land: Truth behind the Mindanao Problem. Iligan City, Philippines: Mindanao-Sulu Critical Studies & Research Group, 1979.

Simkins, Paul D. and Frederick L. Wernstedt. Philippine Migration: The Settlement of the Digos-Padada Valley, Davao Province. New Haven, CT: Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, 1971.

Smith, Warren. “A Geologic Reconnaissance of the Island of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.” In The Philippine Journal of Science. Manila: Bureau of Science, 1908.

Sobrevega, Lourdisita S., et al. An Analysis of Women's Health Situation in Six Selected Communities in Mindanao, Philippines. Davao City: Women Studies and Resource Center, 1992.

Sodusta, Jesucita L. Jamoyawon Ritual: A Territorial Concept. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1983.

Solheim, Wilhelm G., et al. Archaeological Survey in Southeastern Mindanao. Manila and Manoa: National Museum of the Philippines and the University of Hawaii, 1979.

Sopher, David E. The Sea Nomads: A Study Based on the Literature of the Maritime People of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Government Printing, 1965.

Spoehr, Alexander. Zamboanga and Sulu: An Archaeological Approach to Ethnic Diversity. Pittsburgh, PA: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, 1973.

Stone, Richard L. “Intergroup Relations among the Taosug, Samal and Badjaw of the Sulu Archipelago.” M.A. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 1965.

Stories from the Darangen. Marawi City: University Research Center, Mindanao State University, 1983.

Stuart, Florence Partello. The Adventures of Piang: The Moro Jungle Boy. New York: The Century Co., 1917.

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FILIPINO HERITAGE: The Making of a Nation
Alfredo P. Roces, Editor
Associate Editors: Gilda Cordero-Fernando & Carlos Quirino

Volumes 1 – 10,
Library of Congress Control No. 80103206
LC Classification & Call No. DS 668 .F47
Reference - Asian Reading Room

A finding aid for articles on Mindanao & Southern Philippines
Compiled by Hussain Amir Goudarzi, 2008 Summer Student Volunteer at
The Library of Congress Asian Division
under the supervision of Remé Grefalda.

Volume I

- 7-13, “Land Bridges”, Benjamin S. Austin;
  Land bridges between Mindanao and surrounding islands.

- 32-33, “Samal Genesis”, Eric S. Casino; Indigenous tribe to Mindanao’s, creation myth.

- 80-84, “The Creation of Man in Philippine Myths”, Maximo D. Ramos;
  Creation Myths of the peoples of Mindanao as well as other Filipino groups.

- 100-12, “The Tasaday”, Carlos Fernandez; Indigenous Tribe of Mindanao

- 205-09, “Salangsang Urn Burials”, Samuel M. Btiones & Lionel T. Chiong;  

- 219-24, “Prehistoric Burial Rites”, Arsenio E. Manuel
  Ancient customs and practices of burying among the peoples of Mindanao.

- 235-37, “Our Underwater Treasures”, Asiri J. Abuakar;
  The importance of pearls to the Sulus of southern Philippines.

- 261-65, “The Bajau of Sulu”, Harry Arlo Nimmo; The Bajau peoples of Sulu.  

Volume II 

- 281-88, “The Folk Art of Cloth Weaving”, Robert Lane;
  The fabrics and weaving of the peoples of Mindanao.

- 309-13, “The Relationship of Borneo, Celebes and Mindanao”, Eric S. Casino;
  Similarities between Mindanao and the Islands surrounding it.

- 346-49, “Legends of the Marano”, Nagasura T. Madale;
  The Marano mythical origins of various things.

- 389-92, “Vendetta!” David B. Baradas; The social Justice system employed by the Marano.

- 441-48, “Folk Heavens”, Gabriel Casal Osb;
  Indigenous tribe to Mindanao, The T’Bolis, theory to the afterlife.

- 455-60, “The Legacy of Ginton”, Gabriel Casal Osb;
  Indigenous tribe to Mindanao, The T’Bolis, works with metal.

- 477-85, “The Otherworld”, Maximo D. Ramos;
  Comparison of Maranao Folk Creatures and rest of Philippines.

- 523-27, “Root of a Language”, Richard E. Elkins; Evolution of the Manobo Language.

- 528-32, ‘The Healing Ritual”, FR. Emmanuel Nabayra;
  Healing rituals of the Mandaya, an indigenous tribe of Mindanao.

Volume III

- 589-92, “Celestial Traders in Sulu”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Commercial trading between the Chinese and the Sulu’s.
  
- 606-12, “To Win a Tausug Maiden”, Asiri J. Abubakar;
  Wedding practices among the Tausug of Sulu.

- 645-60, “A Booming Inter-island Trade”, Miguel A. S.J.
  Bernard;  Pre-Spanish trade between Mindanao and the various
  islands of the Philippines.

- 653, “Tarsilas”, Cesar Adib Majul; The prophet Muhammad’s
  genealogy in the Philippines.

- 655-57, “Darangen: The Loves and Wars of a Kingdom”, Juan
  R. Francisco; A popular epic of the Maranao.

- 671-72, “The Maranao Malong”, David B. Baradas;
  Various Forms of Weaves and clothing of the Maranao
 
- 673-78, “The Coming of Islam”, Cesar Adib Majul; The Spread
  of Islam Through Mindanao.

- 679-80, “Muslim Brassware”, Abudulmari A. Imko; Marano
  brass-casting.

- 701-06, “The Quality of Being Maranao”, David B. Baradas;
  The Maranao people.
 
- 729-37, “The High Fashion World of the T’Boli”, Gabriel Casal
  Osb; Clothing and Fashion Among the T’Boli, an indigenous
  tribe of Mindanao.

- 738-41, “Two Kingdoms”, Eric S. Casino; Early relationships
  between Brunei and the Sulu.

- 772-76, “A Tradition of Gongs and Lutes”, Jose M. Maceda;
  Musical instruments of the southern Philippines as well as east
  Asian.

- 779-84, “Mosques In the Philippines”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Architecture and practices of Mosques in the Philippines.  

Volume IV

- 849-53, “Okkil Art”, Abdulmari A. Lmao;
  The influence of Islamic art in Southern Philippines.

- 869-72, “Epiphany in the Philippines”, Miguel A. S.J Bernard;
  How Christianity Spread through the Philippines to Southern
  Philippines.

- 916-24, “A Weapon for Every Occasion”, Julian E. Jr. Dacanay;
  Role of Weapons for War and Ceremonies among Southern
  Philipino Groups

- 1045-49, “Art in Maranao Life”, David, B. Baradas; Various
  Maranao cultural art forms.

- 1070-77, “Tausug Thunder”, Thomas M. Kiefer; Everything
  that encompasses the Tausug.

- 1080-86, “The Moro Wars”, Cesar Adib Majul; War Between
  the Spaniards and Philippine Muslims.

- 1087-89, “Fort Strategy”, Cesar Adib Majul; How Muslim
  Filipinos Deployed their Cottas (forts) on High Ground

Volume V

- 1121-25, “The Unconquerable Sultan”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Southern Pilipino Sultan who fought against the colonists and
  a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

- 1131-33, “The Shifting Winds of Trade”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Trade between the Arabs, Persians, Indians, and Chinese with
  the Sulu-Mindanao.

- 1137-40, “Land of Changing Fortunes”, Jeremy Beckett;
  Changing power patterns and the dynamics of Magindanao life.

- 1164-69, “Warrior’s Choice”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Sulu Muslim weapons that were used for defense as well as
  ceremonial purposes.

- 1261-64, “State Craft”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Sulu’s early Islamization and the centralization of political
  institutions with sultans.

- 1284-85, “A Lucky House”, E. Madale;
  Maranao traditional beliefs of what brings good luck to a house.

- 1293-97, “Summitry in the South”, E. P. Patanne;
  The jobs of Sultans in southern Philippines.

- 1306-13, “Music Unfolding”, Arsenio Manuel;
  Instruments and music for various ceremonies of southern
  Philippines.

- 1314-16, “Waray Warrior Dance”, Petronilo BN. Daroy;
  Battling dance called moro-moro, which was used against
  Muslim attacks.

- 1332-36, “Sulu Power Games”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  Power struggles within the Sulu as well as foreign Pressure.

Volume VI

- 1429-32, “High Living”, Gabriel Casal Osb;
  The T’Boli house, architecture as well as how people live
  inside them. 

- 1454-56, “Birds of Good News and Ill Omen”, Porfirio
  Castaneda;
  How birds play an important role to the people of southern
  Philippines.

- 1500-05, “The Moro-Moro”, Doreen G. Fernandez;
  After attacks by Muslims in Mindanao, customs and plays
  arose from the wake.

- 1518-25, “British Banter”, Caroline Kennedy-Cabrera;
  William Dampier’s voyage with captain Swan to Mindanao.

- 1577-81, “Sari-Manok File”, Nagasura T. Madale;
  The ledgendary bird of Mindanao.

- 1650-52, ‘A Frontier for Christ”, Sister Maria Del Rey, M.M;
  The Mindanao area was a forefront for spreading the
  Christian message.

- 1678-80, “Sounds around Lake Lanao”, Usopay H. Cadar;
  Maranao music as well as influences of it.

Volume VII

- 1696-00, “Two Take on the Juramentado”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  A Spanish perspective on Spanish war against the Sulu.

-1701-02, “Two Take on the Juramentado”, Thomas M. Kiefer;
  An American perspective on Christian Filipino and their Muslim
  brothers in the south.

- 1703-08, “The Old Trusty Blade”, Eric S. Casino;
  Traditional Mindanao blades have scientific, sociological and
  symbolic meanings.

- 1724-32, “Island Music Mix”, Fernando Nakpil-Zialcita;
  How Spanish music complements and diversifies music in
  southern Philippines.

Volume VIII

- 2112-13, “A Harvest of Oral Tradtions”, E. Arsenio Manuel;
  Southern Filipino folk tales and epics.

- 2168-69, “Pioneer Superport”, Asiri J. Abubakar;
  Bustling trade between the Sulus and surrounding Asian
  countries.

- 2172-76, “Blood Brothers South”, Cesar Adib Majul;
  How the Muslim Sulus united in arms against the Spaniards.

- 2177-79, “Forbidden Games”, Gilda Cordero-Fernando;
  The love bath of the Muslims of southern Philippines.

Volume IX

- 2312-17, “Converging Cultures”, Fay L. Dumagat;
  The migrations of people around Asia to Southern Philippines.

- 2386-89, “The Kris vs. The Krag”, E. P. Patanne;
  The last big battle that ended the Muslim resistance in
  southern Philippines.

- 2452-57, “Who’s Minding the Store?”, Felice P. Sta. Maria;
  Inter-island commerce involving the Sulu and other Asian
  countries.

- 2463-64, “Our Revered Arab Law”, Macapanton Y. Abbas, Jr.;
  How Islamic law constitute a bridge between the middle east
  and southern Philippines.

Volume X

- 2601-04, “The Eyewitness”, Eric S. Casino;
  Southern Philippine anthropology.

- 2638-42, “The Yakan of Basilan”, Inger Wulff;
  Lesser-known Muslim peoples of the Philippines.

- 2760-65, “Identity Papers”, Horacio De La Costa, S.J;
  Anthropological evidence of what separates Filipinos from rest
  of Asians.

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